اثرات روش‌های آبیاری زیرسطحی، سفالی و قطره‌ای بر رشد نهال توت در مناطق خشک (مطالعۀ موردی: منطقۀ سیستان)

نوع مقاله : پژوهشی

نویسنده

دانشیار/مرکز تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی سیستان، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی

چکیده

رشد جمعیت و به‌دنبال آن افزایش مصرف آب، به‌دلیل ارتقای شاخص­های بهداشت و رفاه از یک سو و توسعۀ بخش­های اقتصادی و کشاورزی و به‌کارگیری روش‌های آبیاری سنتی، از سوی دیگر، افزایش تقاضای آب را در پی داشته است، در حالی‌که منابع آبی شیرین محدود است. بخش کشاورزی قسمت عمده­ای از آب شیرین را مصرف می­کند، لذا استفادۀ بهینه از منابع آب موجود یکی از راهکارهای مقابله با محدودیت منابع آبی است که علاوه بر افزایش تولید در واحد سطح، وسعت اراضی کشاورزی تحت کشت را نیز افزایش می‌دهد. در همین راستا، این پژوهش به­منظور ارزیابی رشد نهال توت با سه روش آبیاری زیرسطحی، سفالی و قطره‌ای در مناطق خشک انجام شد. سه تیمار آبیاری سفالی، قطره­ای و زیرسطحی با چهار تکرار روی گیاه توت در قالب طرح کاملاً تصادفی در سال 1394 مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. ابتدا چاله­هایی حفر و سه نمونه خاک از عمق 50 سانتی‌متری هر تیمار برداشت و برخی از ویژگی‌های آن اندازه‌گیری شد و نهال توت ریشه­دار شش ماهه در چاله‌ها کاشته شد. سپس، ارتفاع درخت، تعداد شاخه، قطر و تاج‌پوشش در طول فصل رشد و رطوبت خاک در عمق 60 سانتی‌متری قبل از آبیاری اندازه‌گیری شد. تجزیه و تحلیل آماری میانگین­ یافته­ها با استفاده از نرم‌افزار SPSS انجام شد. نتایج نشان داد بین مقادیر مربوط به افزایش ارتفاع نهال‌ها در آبیاری­های زیرسطحی (5/78 سانتی‌متر)، سفالی (5/45 سانتی‌متر) و قطره­ای (7/59 سانتی‌متر) در سطح پنج درصد و مقادیر رطوبت خاک مربوط به سه تیمار آبیاری (به­ترتیب 18، 25/14 و 4/13 درصد) در سطح یک درصد اختلاف معنی‌داری وجود داشت. نتایج این پژوهش نشان داد که در روش آبیاری زیرسطحی نیاز آبی گیاه بهتر تامین می­شود و آب زیادتری در دسترس نهال قرار می­گیرد؛ بنابراین، نسبت به آبیاری سفالی و قطره­ای عملکرد بهتری دارد.

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