معرفی گونه‌‌های گیاهی مناسب مهار فرسایش شیاری

نوع مقاله : فنی و ترویجی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری مدیریت جنگل/ دانشکده علوم جنگل، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی گرگان، گلستان

2 دانشجوی دکتری/ گروه مهندسی آبخیزداری، دانشکده منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی گرگان، گلستان

3 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد/ گروه خاک، پردیس کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه رازی، کرمانشاه

چکیده

گسترش و توسعة جوامع بشر به‌واسطه افزایش نیاز به توسعة زیرساخت‌ها همواره با کاهش میزان پوشش گیاهی و در نتیجه ایجاد تغییرات در سیمای سرزمین و به‌ویژه عامل اساسی در وقوع فرسایش خاک و افزایش انواع ناپایداری در خاک همراه بوده است. عمده پژوهش‌های انجام شده حاکی از آن است که استفاده کارآمد از پوشش گیاهی سبب افزایش مقاومت و پایداری و کاهش میزان فرسایش خاک می‌شود. در این راستا، انتخاب گونه‌های گیاهی مناسب برای مهار فرسایش خاک و هم‌چنین انتخاب ترکیبی از گونه‌ها از مسائل مهم است. فرسایش شیاری یکی از اشکال بارز فرسایش‌های آبی به‌شمار می‌رود که علاوه بر تخریب خاک سبب ایجاد شرایط نامطلوب برای استقرار گیاهان می‌شود. لذا، پژوهش حاضر با هدف آشنایی بیش‌تر در زمینة فرآیند فرسایش شیاری و گونه‌های مناسب و دارای پتانسیل برای مهار آن صورت گرفت. گونه‌های گیاهی مناسب معرفی شده در این پژوهش با توجه به معیارهای اهمیت تاج پوشش، ریشه، ساقه، مقاومت تنشی و اقلیمی شامل Vetiveria zizanioide، Tamarix، Oliv uphratica Populus، Haloxylon،Parrotia persica ، Diospyros lotus، Medicago spp، olea europaea، Platanus orientalis و Cercis siliquastrum بوده است که می‌توان آن‌ها را پس از بررسی میزان سازگاری با ویژگی‌های منطقة مورد نظر و به‌منظور بهره‌گیری از روش‌های زیستی با هدف کاهش فرسایش استفاده کرد.

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